Technology

 

Mechanical filtration

Mechanical filtration is a basic and necessary method of water purification for most of our devices. It prepares the tap water for a softening process, an iron removal, a reverse osmosis and a UV lamp radiation. Its efficiency depends on a sediment module type, to the quality of demineralized water. It is made of a netted, stringed or foamed polypropylene cartridge and a housing. It holds all sort of mechanical contamination, such as sand, mud, stain of a grain size from 100 μm to 1μm. A sediment's module lifetime depends on contamination type and varies between 3 and 6 months.

 

Activated carbon filtration

Contamination existing in tap water are sorbed on an activated carbon. Hydrolab's carbon modules prepare the tap water for further stages of purifcation process. They have a granulated or compressed activated carbon of a 500-1000 nm permeability and a 1000 m2/g area. They show adsorption properties and remove chlorium, its derivatives and organic contamination extremely well, protecting the osmotic module. Large surface and permeability, as well as material bound by it, make a good enviroment for microorganisms. Activated carbon filters should be regurarly replaced for minimizing the bacteria accumulation. With 0,3 - 0,4 mg/dm3 chlorium concentration, a twice a year replacement should be sufficient.

 

Softening

Water preparation for a reverse osmosis process, removes calcium and magnesium ions from water.

 

Iron removal

Water preparation for a reverse osmosis process, removes iron ions from water.

 

Reverse osmosis module - RO

An RO membrane holds up to 96-99% of diluted organic and non-organic contamination. Osmotic water conductivity varies between a few to several μS/cm. Retention level (96-99%) depends on salinity, temperature, pressure and flow speed of tap water. A semi-permeable osmotic membrane consists of many layers wrapped on a perforated central tube situated inside the membrane. Contaminated water is pumped under pressure on the membrane's surface, where water molecules by diffusion flow through the membrane. Contaminations are extracted, purified water flows through the central tube and under pressure exits the membrane.

 

Demineralization on a ionex resin

Deionization modules contain ionrex resins in an ion H+/OHˉ form. Osmotic water is purified on deionization columns, where remaining mineral salts are captured. In an ionex process, existing ions and molecules in water, having a particular charge, are bound by ionites. After this process, the conductivity decreases to 0,055 μS/cm.

 

UV lamp 254nm

UV lamp radiation is used for a disinfection. These deviced emit a radiation of a 254nm wave length, initiating a photochemical reaction damaging DNA structures of microorganisms existing in water. This radiation causes irreversable deactivation of bacteria, viruses, mold, fungus and other organisms. UV lamp consists of a radiation tube with a UV radiator, protected by a quartz housing, mounted inside. 8500h lifetime.

 

UV lamp 185/254

This device emits radiation of a 185 and 254nm wave length, damaging DNA structures and reducing TOC. 8500h lifetime.

 

Ultrafiltration

Ultrafiltration is a low-pressure process of separation, using assymetrical permeable membranes, of a 1-10μm radius, letting water, salts and saccharides flow through it, separating them from proteins and larger molecules. Reduces endotoxines extremely well.

 

Microfiltration 0,2 μm (capsule)

Microfiltration capsule is a ready-to-use flow filter intended for sterilizing water. Made of a polypropylene housing and a double-layer membrane (cellulose acetate or polyetherosulfone) with a 0,2 μm and 0,45 μm pore size. Working surface is the pore amount equal to bacteria retained on a specific membrane area. It is 1 x 107 CFU/cm2 for the Brevundimonas diminuta.